Glossary of Mining terms

Aerial surveyingAerial survey is a geomatics method of collecting information by using aerial photography, LiDAR or from remote sensing imagery using other bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as infrared, gamma, or ultraviolet. It can also refer to the chart or map made by analysing a region from the air.
AlloyA metal mixed with other elements, such as carbon, nickel or copper, to change its properties, e.g. to improve resistance to corrosion.
ApatiteApatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal.
AssayA chemical test performed on a rock sample to determine the amount –or grade- of valuable metal contained.
Artisanal minersOr small-scale miner is, in effect, a subsistence miner. They are not officially employed by a mining company, but rather work independently, mining or panning for gold using their own resources.
BankA flat area outside the level entrance.
Barren RockRock that does not contain minerals in quantities sufficient to allow for economically profitable mining.
BedrockSolid rock present beneath any soil, sediment or other surface cover.
BeneficiateProcess (ores or other raw materials), as by reduction
Bessemer processProcess of rendering cast iron malleable by the introduction of air into the fluid metal to remove carbon. This was the first process for mass-producing steel inexpensively.
Bituminous coalA mineral coal that contains volatile hydrocarbons and tarry matter and burns with a yellow, smoky flame; soft coal.
Blast FurnaceA shaft furnace in which solid fuel (coke) is burned with an air blast to smelt ore in a continuous operation.
BlastingTechnique to break ore in an underground or open-pit mine.
BloomeryAn early hearth for smelting haematite to produce iron.
BogieClutch vehicle used for transporting ore and waste.
Bulk miningA method of mining in which large quantities of low-grade ore are mined without attempt to segregate the high-grade portions.
Bulk sampleA large sample of mineralized rock, frequently hundreds of tonnes, selected in such a manner as to be representative of the potential orebody being sampled. Used to determine metallurgical characteristics on an industrial scale.
Bulk samplingRemoving mineral substances in substantial quantities (over 50 tonnes) in order to do mineral processing tests.
CaptainThe person in charge of a mine and underground workings.
Cast ironAn alloy of iron containing so much carbon (2% to 6%) that it becomes too brittle to be wrought, and it must be shaped by casting in a mould while molten.
ClaimMining right that grants holder the exclusive right to search, within a given territory, for any mineral substance. May exclude peat, sand, clay, gravel, hydrocarbons, brine and stone used for industrial purposes.
CokeCoke is a solid carbon fuel and carbon source used to melt and reduce iron ore.
CokemakingThe processes used to make coke. The process begins with pulverized, bituminous coal. The coal is fed into a coke oven which is sealed and heated to very high temperatures for 14 to 36 hours. After completion, the coke is moved to quenching towers and stored until it is needed.
CompanyA group of four or five miners working together.
Competent Persons ReportAny Public Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources or Ore Reserves must be signed off by a Competent Person in accordance with the Joint Ore Reserves Committee(JORC) Code. A Competent Person must be a Member or Fellow of The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, or of the Australian Institute of Geoscientists, or of a ‘Recognised Overseas Professional Organisation’ (the 2004 Edition) or ‘Recognised Professional Organisation’ (2012 Edition). A Competent Person must have a minimum of five years’ experience working with the style of mineralisation and type of deposit under consideration and relevant to the activity which that person is undertaking.
ConcentrateSubstance of value produced by physical and/or chemical processing of ore. The separation of economically valuable minerals from the gangue.
ConcentratorA process where iron ore is upgraded to a higher iron content.
Core sampleCylindrical sample of rock taken from the ground by drilling for research and exploration purposes.
Cross-cutDrift in an underground mine that provides access to an orebody.
Crown or Surface PillarA body of rock of variable geometry, which may or may not contain minerals. Located above the underground operations, it supports the surface above stopes.
CrushingThe process of breaking up large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel or rock dust. Crushing is an essential part of the mining, reducing run-of-mine ore to a size that can be easily transported or processed.
Cupola FurnaceCupola furnaces are tall, cylindrical furnaces used to melt iron and ferro alloys in foundry operations. Alternating layers of metal and ferro alloys, coke, and limestone are fed into the furnace from the top.
Cut-Off GradeThe grade or concentration of metallic minerals below which the material is considered to be uneconomical to mine and process. A cut-off grade of 20% Fe implies that any material containing less than 20% iron will be uneconomical to mine. If the average mine grade drops below the cut off grade, the mine will operate at a loss.
Day levelA level driven directly from the surface.
Define a resourceIdentification of the type of natural resource that exists in a region and may be used in the future (in contrast to actual resource).
DevelopmentA phase of activity ranging from confirmation of a mineral deposit to the decision to build a mine. Development includes all geological, engineering and economic work necessary to ensure profitable mining and compliance with applicable laws.
DiamondThe hardest and most brilliant of all precious gems. Drills are equipped with diamond tips in order to cut through hard rock.
DilutionMixing of ore grade material with non-ore grade waste material in the mining process. Dilution reduces the overall grade of the ore.
Direct-Reduced Iron (DRI)Produced from the direct reduction of iron ore (in form of lumps, pellets or fines) by a reducing gas produced from natural gas or coal. Direct-reduced iron is richer in iron than pig iron, typically 90-94% total iron, as opposed to about 93% for molten pig iron, and an excellent feedstock for the electric furnaces used by mini mills, allowing them to use lower grades of scrap for the rest of the charge.
Downcast shaftThe shaft bringing fresh air into the mine.
DriftA tunnel driven to gain access to the vein.
DrillingPiercing a hole in rock. In exploration, drilling allows for samples of the rock to be taken. In mining, it is used to insert explosives for blasting.
Dyke (vein)A long mass of eruptive rock, a dyke (vein) may consist of mineral deposits located between other rocks.
Electric Arc Furnaces (EAFs)Electric arc furnaces are often used in large steel foundries and steel mills. The metal is charged into the furnace, with additives to make recovery of slag easier, and heat to melt the metal is produced with an electric arc from three carbon or granite electrodes. Frequently mills producing steel with EAF technology are called mini-mills.
Energy Optimizing Furnace (EOF)EOF was developed to replace the electric arc and other steelmaking furnaces. The EOF is an oxygen steelmaking process. Carbon and oxygen react to preheat scrap metal, hot metal and/or pig iron.
Environmental baseline studiesThe environmental monitoring work completed before a production decision is taken on a mining project, examining the existing state of the environment and the potential effects that proposed mining activities will have on the natural surroundings. The studies will include ground water (lakes, streams, rivers etc), wildlife (plants and animals), potential noise levels from construction and mining operations, potential impacts from on-going mining operations such as dust and vibration levels etc.
ErosionWearing away and transformation of the earth’s crust caused by water (rain, sea), ice and atmospheric agents (wind).
ExplorationIn the broad sense, the whole range of mining activity from searching for and developing mineral deposits to developing the mine. In the strict sense, the search for mineral deposits up to discovery and includes the deliniation of the deposit by means of drilling and sampling.
ExtractionMining activity that consists of removing the rock from an underground or open-pit mine.
Feasibility Study (Bankable Feasibility Study)A detailed engineering study which defines the technical, economic, social and legal viability of a mining project with a high degree of reliability, identifying and quantifying any risks and providing sufficient information to determine whether or not the project should be advanced to the final engineering and construction stage. A bankable feasibility study forms the basis on which banks and other lenders provide the capital necessary to build the mine(s).
FinesMaterial that passes through a standard screen on which coarser fragments are retained.
FlatsHorizontal vein working.
FlotationA concentration process in which valuable mineral particles are induced to attached themselves to bubbles and float away from the waste particles in a solid/solution pulp. Specific chemicals are added to either float (foam off) particular minerals or to depress the flotation of other minerals. Several stages of processing are generally involved with rough bulk flotation products being subjected to additional flotation steps to increase product purity.
ForgeA place where iron or other metals are wrought by heating in a furnace or special hearth, followed by hammering.
Foundry/smelterA pyrometallurgical plant where the concentrate is chemically reduced in order to extract the metal or metals it contains.
GangueThe worthless minerals in an ore deposit.
GeochemistryThe study of the chemical components of the earth’s crust and mantle. Geochemistry is applied to mining exploration to detect sites that indicate abnormal concentrations either of the elements being sought or of their more readily detected associate elements. Depending on circumstance, geochemical exploration samples soils, rock and lake and stream sediments.
GeologyScience devoted to the study of the structure and evolution of the earth’s crust.
GeophysicsStudy of the various physical properties of the earth and the composition and movement of its component layers of rock. Geophysics is applied to mining exploration to detect zones characterized by their physical properties such as magnetism, gravity or conductivity (electromagnetism).
GinA horse-powered capstan for drawing ore up a shaft.
GoldA very ductile and malleable brilliant yellow precious metal that is resistant to air and water corrosion.
Gold exploration rightsThe process of acquisition of land for exploration or mining varies throughout the world. The process can involve the negotiation of agreements with existing private owners, the outright purchase, the staking of lands, or acquisition from the government of these rights under a licence or other form of permit.
Gold leasesWhen someone owning gold lets someone else borrow it, on the promise that it will be returned in the future.
GradeThe metal content of ore measured in grams per tonne or per cent. For example, a grade of 40% iron implies 400kg of contained iron for each 1,000kg of ore.
GrindingMeans of reducing ore into very small particles by means of pressure or impact. Different types of grinders are used in the processing plant to obtain the desired dimension.
Haematite (hematite)A red-coloured form of iron ore (chemical symbol Fe2O3) that occurs in crystalline, massive or granular forms. It is the commonest form of iron ore.
Hematite DepositDeposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. Gray hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs, such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake, spring, or other standing water. Hematite can also occur without water, however, usually as the result of volcanic activity.
Haulage wayA level along which tubs of ore are pulled.
Head frameHead frame
HeadgearThe rigging for hauling or lifting located at the head of a mine shaft.
Horse levelA main tramming level where the tubs were removed by horse.
InclineA tunnel driven at an angle usually between 33 and 45 degrees or a tramway for lowering material down a slope.
Induction FurnacesInduction furnaces are the most widely used type of furnace for melting iron and are increasingly popular for melting non-ferrous metals (USEPA, 1992). They are popular because they provide excellent metallurgical control and are relatively pollution free.
InfrastructureConstruction necessary for mining, such as certain buildings, gas pipes, water lines, sewage and water systems, telephone cables and reservoirs. It may also include roads, railways, airports and bridges, as well as transmission lines, electrical cables, pylons and transformers.
IronA ductile and malleable greyish white metal used in making steel. An element (chemical symbol Fe), the most widely used of all the metals.
Iron masterThe proprietor of ironworks or mines.
Iron oreRocks or deposits containing compounds from which iron can be madeA solid naturally-occurring mineral aggregate from which metal may be recovered via a treatment process.
Iron ore mineralizationIn geology, mineralization is the hydrothermal deposition of economically important metals in the formation of ore bodies or 'lodes'. The first scientific studies of this process took place in the English county of Cornwall by J.W.Henwood FRS and later by R.W. Fox, FRS.(1)The term can also refer to the process by which waterborne minerals, such as calcium carbonate (calcite), iron oxide (hematite or limonite) or silica (quartz), replace organic material within the body of an organism that has died and was buried by sediments.(2) Mineralization may also refer to the product resulting from the process of mineralization. For example, mineralization (the process) may introduce metals (such as iron) into a rock. That rock may then be referred to as possessing iron mineralization.
Iron oxideA reddish-brown compound of iron and oxygen, commonly known as rust, and seen on the surface of iron objects.
IronmakingDuring ironmaking, iron ore, coke, heated air and limestone or other fluxes are fed into a blast furnace to produce molten iron that is free from impurities.
Joint Ore Reserves Committee (JORC)The Australasian Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves. The JORC Code provides minimum standards for public reporting to ensure that investors and their advisers have all the information they would reasonably require for forming a reliable opinion on the results and estimates being reported.
Kidney oreA particular form of iron ore that appears as rounded red masses with a metallic sheen.
LeadA heavy soft malleable ductile but inelastic bluish white metallic element found mostly in combination and used in pipes, cable sheaths, batteries, solder, type metal, and shields against radioactivity.
LevelA tunnel driven to gain access to the minerals within a mine.
Magnetic anomalyIn geophysics, a magnetic anomaly is a local variation in the Earth's magnetic field resulting from variations in the chemistry or magnetism of the rocks. Mapping of variation over an area is valuable in detecting structures obscured by overlying material. The magnetic variation in successive bands of ocean floor parallel with mid-ocean ridges is important evidence supporting the theory of seafloor spreading, central to plate tectonics. These layers are used for dating rocks.
Magnetic SeparationA process in which a magnetically susceptible mineral is separated from waste or undesirable minerals by applying a strong magnetic field; ores of iron are commonly treated in this way.
MagnetiteFe3O4, Iron Oxide – a dense metallic grey ore mineral of iron.
Metallurgical analysisThe study of metals and the metalworking process through the examination of finished products, manufacturing waste, tools and equipment connected with manufacture, and the raw materials used.
MetallurgyThe study and practice of removing valuable metals from an ore and refining the extracted raw metals into a purer form.
MetamorphismChanges over time, in the composition and structure of rocks caused by pressure and temperature.
Mill/concentrator processing plantA processing plant which crushes and treats ore for the purpose of upgrading the mineral content into a higher grade product called a concentrate, or to produce metal. Surface plant facilities for ore treatment allow for the recovery and removal of metals or the concentration of valuable minerals for smelting and refining.
MineA plant built to extract an ore or mineral substance either underground or from the surface. When the ore is extracted underground, the mine needs a system of excavations in the rock to gain access to the ore areas. When the ore is mined from surface, the ore is extracted from one or several pits.
Mine agentA person who acquires finance for the mining operation.
Mineral depositMineralized mass that may be economically valuable, but whose characteristics require more detailed information. An ore body being mined may be called a deposit.
MineralisationThe process of mineralizing, or forming a mineral by combination of a metal with another element; also, the process of converting into a mineral, as a bone or a plant – mineralization.
Mineral explorationActivity undertaken to determine the presence of geological formations which may contain deposits such as precious metals, base metals, gemstones, coal or other minerals, as well as to determine the extent, geometry and grade of such deposits. Drilling, pitting, trenching and surface stripping are common activities undertaken during mineral exploration. Temporary work camps and docks are often established to support mineral exploration activities.
Mineral processingActivity whose purpose is the extraction, concentration, smelting of economic minerals from a mineral deposit. It includes exploration (in the strict sense), development of mineral deposits, constructing the mine and mining, i.e. extracting and processing the ore or tailings.
Mineral Reservethe economically mineable part of a Measured or Indicated Mineral Resource demonstrated by at least a preliminary feasibility study. This study must include adequate information on mining, processing, metallurgical, economic and other relevant factors that demonstrate, at the time of reporting, that economic extraction can be justified. A Mineral Reserve includes diluting materials and allowances for losses that may occur when the material is mined.
Mineral ResourceA concentration or occurrence of natural, solid, inorganic or fossilized organic material in or on the Earth’s crust in such form and quantity and of such a grade or quality that it has reasonable prospects for economic extraction. The location, quantity, grade, geological characteristics and continuity of a Mineral Resource are known, estimated or interpreted from specific geological evidence and knowledge.
Mineral stockpilesStockpiles of magnetite typically occur as a result of mining operations discarding mined magnetite ore when mining for other commodities.
MineralogyThe study of the chemistry and physical properties of ore and gangue minerals within mineral deposits.
Mini-MillsSteel production plants that rely on steel scrap as a base material rather than ore. Products do not have the tight chemical composition of integrated plants and have narrower product lines
MiningThe science, technique, and business of mineral discovery and exploitation. Strictly, the word connotes underground work directed to severance and treatment of ore or associated rock. Practically, it includes opencast work, quarrying, alluvial dredging, and combined operations, including surface and underground attack and ore treatment.
Mining leaseLegal contract for the right to work a mine and extract the mineral or other valuable deposits from it under prescribed conditions of time, price, rental, or royalties.
Mining rightUpon a specific piece of ground, a right to enter upon and occupy the ground for the purpose of working it, either by underground excavations or open workings, to obtain from it the mineral ores which may be deposited therein.
Mining methodAny of the systems employed in the exploitation of coal seams and orebodies. The method adopted depends on a large number of factors, mainly, the quality, shape, size, and depth of the deposit; accessibility and capital available.; stoping methods.
Mining Rock Mass Rating (MRMR)A rock mass classification scheme developed for use in mining, particularly block caving, applications.
Net Smelter Return (NSR)A royalty payment made by a producer of metals based on gross metal production from the property, less deduction of certain limited costs including smelting, refining, transportation and insurance costs.
NI 43-101 (National Instrument 43-101)A set of reporting and disclosure standards imposed by regulators on Canadian listed mining and exploration companies that govern how issuers report scientific and technical information about their mineral projects to the public anywhere in the world. It covers oral statements as well as written documents and websites, and it requires that all disclosure be based on advice by a “qualified person”.
OreA natural aggregate of one or more minerals that can be mined and profitably sold under current conditions, or from which one or more minerals can be profitably extracted.
Ore bodyA mass or vein of ore.
Ore reservesThe portion of a mineral deposit that can be profitably mined. Use of this term implies both an appropriate detailed knowledge of all the geological, engineering, economic and environmental parameters that might affect on profitability of the operation. For a new mining project or for the mining of new zones in an existing mine, a formal feasibility study is conducted to evaluate all parameters of the project.
OrebodyA continuous, well-defined mass of material of sufficient ore content to make extraction economically feasible. The term orebody is used once the economic limits of the mineralized mass and its grade have been examined.
OutcropAn exposure of bedrock. Outcrops can be formed naturally or by human action.
OverburdenThe alluvium and rock that must be removed in order to expose an ore deposit.
PanningOperation that consists of separating heavier minerals such as gold and sulphides from lighter metals in stream sediment, loose soil or crushed rock in a container shaped like a frying pan. In arid countries a similar operation, winnowing, can be performed without water.
PelletA small, round, marble-sized ball of iron ore manufactured as feed for blast furnaces.
PelletizingThe process by which iron ore is crushed, ground into a powder, rolled into balls and fired in a furnace to produce strong, marble-sized pellets that contain 60% to 65% iron. Raw iron ore pellets are generally manufactured within certain size categories and with mechanical properties high enough to maintain usefulness during the stresses of transference, transport, and use. Both mechanical force and thermal processes are used to produce the correct pellet properties.
Pig Ironthe intermediate product of smelting steel ore with coke and resin. Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically 3.5 – 4.5%, which makes it very brittle and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications. Pig iron is typically poured directly out of the bottom of the blast furnace through a trough into a ladle car for transfer to the steel plant in liquid form, referred to as hot metal.
PinnelFine glacial boulder clay.
PitGeneral term for an iron ore working.
Possible reserveOre deposits whose continuity has been determined from limited sampling information and reasonable extrapolation. It does not stand alone but is an extension of, or additional to, proven or probable reserves. Possible reserves are excellent targets for increasing a probable reserve and for extending the deposit over a larger and generally deeper area.
Pre-feasibility studyA preliminary assessment of the Economic Viability of a deposit which forms the basis for justifying the completion of a more expensive Feasibility Study. A pre-feasibility study summarizes all geological, engineering, environmental, legal and economic information accumulated to date on the project. The Prefeasibility Study should have error limits of ± 25%.
Primary crushingProcess of reducing blasted ore into smaller fragments so that it can be transported to the processing plant. In underground mines, the primary crusher is often located underground, or at the entrance to the processing plant.
Probable reserveOre deposits whose continuity has been confirmed by samplings on a relatively detailed grid. The density of the grid allows for fairly precise determination of tonnage, density and mineral and metal content sufficient to prepare draft preliminary mining plans. It is that part of an ore deposit for which economic viability has been demonstrated at a confidence level which would justify a commitment to major expenditures. Developing a new mine is usually undertaken with probable and proven reserves.
ProcessingProspecting refers to exploration, operation consisting of extracting the economically valuable mineral or minerals from ore or tailings.
ProspectingIn the broad sense, prospecting refers to exploration. In the strict sense, prospecting describes the search for surface mineralized showings (by prospectors).
Prospecting licenceA licence granted under this Act to conduct prospecting, general exploration and detailed exploration operations, and unless the context otherwise requires, the expression, ‘prospecting licence’ shall be deemed to include ‘a large area prospecting licence’.
Proven reserveOre deposits whose tonnage, density and mineral or metal content are known in detail. This implies that sampling and drilling have been carried out in a regular grid located near mine workings. A proven reserve is that portion of an ore deposit for which technical and economic factors have been established at a high confidence level. The term is generally restricted to that part of a reserve which is being developed or mined, or for which there is a detailed mining plan.
PuddlingAn early process used to convert pig iron to wrought iron.
Pump rodsReciprocating rods of heavy timber, conveying motion from a steam engine to the water pumps at the foot of a shaft.
Qualified Person (QP)A qualified person (QP) is defined in NI43-101 as an individual who is an engineer or geoscientist with at least five years of experience in mineral exploration, mine development or operation or mineral project assessment, or any combination of these; has experience relevant to the subject matter of the mineral project and the technical report; and is a member in good standing of a professional association. The QP must warrant the accuracy and completeness of a company’s technical reports and public disclosures such as press releases or presentations and retains professional responsibility for the contents of the report.
QuarrySite where stone, rock and construction materials are extracted. Open-pit operation.
Resource calculationThe mathematical or statistical process of calculating or estimating the amount of material in a mineral deposit, using drill hole information in combination with a variety of geological data. Resources are generally quoted in terms of tonnes of rock present which contain a specified grade of metal(s) e.g. 98-million tonnes at 43% iron.
RoyaltyAn area of land determined by the lease or a percentage payment demanded by the owner for the weight of mineral sold.
Scoping StudyThe first level of engineering study that is performed on a mineral deposit to determine its economic viability. This is usually performed to determine whether the expense of a full pre-feasibility study and later full feasibility study is warranted. Scoping studies may be completed internally by the Company or by independent engineers.
SedimentationFormation of sediment. A sediment is a natural deposit created by the action of dynamic external agents such as water, wind, and ice.
ShaftA vertical or inclined tunnel used for access, transportation, ventilation or water removal.
ShowingAn indication of mineralization, the extent and economic value of which are unknown.
SinterPieces or granules of fused iron ore.
SinteringManufacturing process in which sinter is produced from fine raw iron ore, small coke, sand-sized limestone and numerous other steel plant waste materials that contain some iron. These fine materials are proportioned to obtain a desired product chemistry then mixed together. This raw material mix is then placed on a sintering strand, which is similar to a steel conveyor belt, where it is ignited by gas fired furnace and fused by the heat from the coke fines into larger size pieces that are from 0.5 to 2.0 inches.
SlagImpurities in the iron ore that have been captured by limestone or other fluxes.
SopAn area or mass of mineral.
SpoilWaste rock and rubbish which is removed from the mine.
SteelSteel is an alloy of iron usually containing less than 1% carbon which is used most frequently in the automotive and construction industries or is cast into bars, strips, sheets, nails, spikes, wire, rods or pipes as needed by the intended user.
StopeArea of mine from which ore is or has been extracted.
Strip RatioThe ratio of tons of overburden waste material to tons of ore in an open pit mine.
SulphurElement that occurs in a nature state or in compounds such as sulphides.
TailingsCrushed or finely ground waste rock from which valuable minerals or metals have been extracted.
TallyMetal disc attached to laden tubs to identify the miner’s output.
Tally stickA wooden stick notched with the number of tubs got by a miner.
Thermal processingTo confer to iron ore pellets high resistance metallurgic mechanics and appropriate characteristics, the pellets are subjected to thermal processing, which involves stages of drying, daily pay burn, burn, after-burn and cooling (in a cooling tower). The duration of each stage and the temperature that the pellets are subjected to have a strong influence on the final product quality.
TonnageThe quantity of ore making up an ore body, or the rate at which ore is extracted.
Top slicingThe process of mining iron ore out a horizontal level (slice), then allowing the ground above to collapse into the slice, and then mining out another slice at a lower level.
TrenchingA trench is invaluable in confirmining the bedrock source of an anomaly, be it geological, geochemical, or geophysical. Trenches and pits also provide large samples for more accurate grade estimates as well as for undertaking pilot processing plant test work to determine likely recoveries.
VeinMineral body in a horizontal, vertical or angled position.
WasteBarren rock or mineralized material that is too low in grade to be economically processed.
Water levelThe level at which water was pumped out from a mine.
WinderMechanism for winding ore from a shaft.
Wrought ironMalleable purified iron containing only a very small number of other elements, but containing slag, and more rust-resistant than steel.